There are two versions of each lab, one with a ten-question conclusion and one with directions for a full lab report. This way the teacher has the option! Each lab is two pages to allow for one two-sided handout.
A 5-Star Customer Review of Chemistry on a Budget at amazon.com states:
“[S]traight forward, to the point, using household chemicals…this is the lab book for you.
I teach high school chemistry and this is exactly what [I] was looking for. Labs included simple household chemicals that could be easily found. Nice format, easy to follow along procedures, and touches on every topic of our chemistry curriculum.”
You can buy this lab book for $23 at amazon.com or lulu.com. It will take 1-2 weeks to get to you -- Order Now. It’s a great resource!
*Some of you have already purchased my lab book – be sure to check out Page 141 !
“In the race to combat climate change, the city of Los Angeles is employing a surprising new tactic -- covering its streets in a grayish-white coating known as CoolSeal. It's sprayed onto the roadway with trucks, then spread across the surface with squeegees. However, its impact extends far beyond the edge of the pavement.
Los Angeles, like so many other modern cities, is encased in thousands of miles of asphalt. And dark-colored asphalt absorbs between 80 and 95 percent of the sun's rays, heating up not just the streets themselves but the entire surrounding area. So when temperatures in Southern California rise above 100 degrees Fahrenheit, surface temperatures on its asphalt roads can climb to 150. It exacerbates a phenomenon known as the "urban heat island effect," which the [Environmental Protection Agency or] EPA says can add up to 22 degrees Fahrenheit to the average air temperature in a city, compared to the surrounding area.”
“Street Services, working in conjunction with GuardTop LLC, an asphalt coating manufacturer based in Dana Point [CA], had first tested the cool pavement seal in the Sepulveda Basin.
Asphalt at a parking lot at the Balboa Sports Complex once averaged 160 degrees in summer. After the seal was applied two years ago, company officials say, surface temperatures dropped to between 135 to 140 degrees.
Now, after rigorous testing for durability and wet skid potential, the CoolSeal coating was being slathered across a half block of Jordan Avenue just north of Hart Street near the headwaters of the Los Angeles River.
If the new seal could boost solar reflectivity —and dramatically cool a street lined with two-story apartments in the hottest region of the San Fernando Valley — it could do it anywhere, city officials said.”
The article below contains several photographs of the paving with the light reflective surface:
“The white paint is called CoolSeal by Guard Top, and is specially designed to reflect the sun’s rays.The hope of painting the roads with CoolSeal, is that it will not only cool down the city, but also reduce the number of heat related deaths, cut air conditioning costs, and protect the environment.
A mile of CoolSeal is costing L.A. $400,000 per mile.”
“Customers often ask … if painting their asphalt shingle roof white will make a difference in their cooling bill. …[using] an infrared thermometer gun to compare the surface temperatures of a cedar colored asphalt shingle and another shingle on the same roof that had been painted white. These temperature readings were taken on a sunny April day in Houston at 3 pm, (outside air temperature was 83°F). …
…[T]he unpainted section of this roof is 173.3°F, while the section painted white is just 128.8°F. The painted shingle is 44.5°F cooler than the regular shingle. “
I will keep watching for reports on this and other ways to reduce temperatures in cities.
Past blog posts on this topic include:
04/03/2016 Permafrost Melting
12/16/2016 Cracks in Antarctic Glacier
01/27/2017 2016 Warmest Year on Record
03/03/2017 China's Vertical Forests
06/23/2017 Antarctica Melting
10/13/2017 Overview of Global Climate Change
11/17/2017 NYC Green Roofs
03/30/2018 China Vertical Forest Update
*This Blog contains several entries that would be helpful to your chemistry classroom. Check out the Topic List to help you to find past Blog entries.
Also, Write To Me about your successes, challenges, or questions in the Chemistry Classroom.
Remember, buying a copy of the lab book Chemistry on a Budget can be very useful to your Chemistry classroom with labs and class article ideas.
Have a great weekend!