There are two versions of each lab, one with a ten-question conclusion and one with directions for a full lab report. This way the teacher has the option! Each lab is two pages to allow for one two-sided handout.
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I teach high school chemistry and this is exactly what [I] was looking for. Labs included simple household chemicals that could be easily found. Nice format, easy to follow along procedures, and touches on every topic of our chemistry curriculum.”
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*Some of you have already purchased my lab book – be sure to check out Page 141 !
“Hawaii's most active volcano, Kilauea, is erupting with a fury, and dangerous levels of sulfur dioxide gas [started erupting on 5/4/2018]. Molten lava and ash were thrown hundreds of feet into the air and onto the streets of the mountainside community near Hilo, and residents under a mandatory evacuation tried to outrun the volcano's flow. …
Residents … are now being warned about the exposure to high levels of sulfur dioxide from the lava, a gas that can cause intense coughing and burning throats. Volcano expert Paul Davis says the gas occurs during the melting process.
‘It's sort of like you've injected ammonia into all your, your nose, into your breathing area, into your throat,’ Davis said.
Hawaii has five active volcanoes, but Kilauea is the biggest. It has been in a constant state of eruption since 1983, and scientists say there is no way to predict how long this eruption will last. “
“Most commonly, sulfur causes nose, throat, and lung irritation, which leads to coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and a tightness in the chest. Symptoms are the worst 10 to 15 minutes after exposure and improve when people are no longer in contact with the gas. Nolan says the length of time before symptoms fade depends on factors like how long someone was near the gas and how much sulfur dioxide was in the air. People who were exposed to large amounts could take several hours to improve.”
“What is sulphur dioxide and why is it so dangerous?Sulphur dioxide is a colourless gas that has a pungent odour.
It irritates skin and the tissue and membranes of the eyes and respiratory system.
Those with respiratory illnesses can suffer from asthma like symptoms when exposed to sulphur dioxide, whilst those usually healthy experience discomfort and pneumonia like symptoms as well as difficulty breathing.
Prolonged exposure can even lead to fatalities from respiratory failure.
Sulphur dioxide emissions can also cause acid rain and air pollution, as well as producing volcanic smog (vog) which can lead to persistent health problems for those close by.
Hawaii Health Department have warned that commercially sold masks don’t protect against 'extremely dangerous gases released from the volcanic eruption.'
Scientists are monitoring the sulphur dioxide levels, and residents who live in the worst hit areas will not be allowed to return home until levels have decreased significantly. “
“Short-term exposure to high levels of sulfur dioxide in the air can be life-threatening by causing breathing difficulties and obstructing airways, especially for people with lung disease. Long-term exposure to persistent levels of sulfur dioxide can cause chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and respiratory illness. It can also aggravate existing heart disease.
When sulfur dioxide reacts with other chemicals in the air to form tiny sulfate particles, these particles can gather in the lungs and cause increased respiratory problems and difficulty breathing. Long-term exposure to sulfate particles can cause respiratory disease and even premature death. …
Breathing sulfur dioxide can irritate the nose, throat, and lungs, and cause coughing and shortness of breath. Short-term exposure to sulfur dioxide can cause stomach pain, menstrual disorders, watery eyes, inhibition of thyroid function, loss of smell, headache, nausea, vomiting, fever, convulsions, and dizziness.”
“Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a colorless, reactive air pollutant with a strong odor. This gas can be a threat to human health, animal health, and plant life.
The main sources of sulfur dioxide emissions are from fossil fuel combustion and natural volcanic activity. Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park (NP) is unique in the national park system because it sometimes has extremely high concentrations of sulfur dioxide — far higher than any other national park, or even most urban areas.”
“What about the other 75% of the acidity of rain? Most is accounted for by the presence of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in rainwater. Although sulfuric acid may be produced naturally in small quantities from biological decay and volcanic activity …, it is produced almost entirely by human activity, especially the combustion of sulfur-containing fossil fuels in power plants. When these fossil fuels are burned, the sulfur contained in them reacts with oxygen from the air to form sulfur dioxide (SO2). Combustion of fossil fuels accounts for approximately 80% of the total atmospheric SO2 in the United States. The effects of burning fossil fuels can be dramatic: in contrast to the unpolluted atmospheric SO2 concentration of 0 to 0.01 ppm, polluted urban air can contain 0.1 to 2 ppm SO2, or up to 200 times more SO2! Sulfur dioxide, like the oxides of carbon and nitrogen, reacts with water to form sulfuric acid
Sulfuric acid is a strong acid, so it readily dissociates in water, to give an H+ ion and an HSO4- ion (Equation 7). The HSO4- ion may further dissociate to give H+ and SO42- (Equation 8). Thus, the presence of H2SO4 causes the concentration of H+ ions to increase dramatically, and so the pH of the rainwater drops to harmful levels.
“If winds weaken, that gas and other volcanic pollutants can settle easily with moisture and dust to create a haze called volcanic smog, or "vog," with tiny sulfuric acid droplets that can pose respiratory problems, according to the US Geological Survey. “
According to a report in the Hawaii News on 5/8/18, “Some Hawaii island residents were showing early signs of respiratory illness over the weekend as the lava from Kilauea Volcano expanded its footprint in the Leilani Estates subdivision.
State Sen. Josh Green (D, Kona-Kau), an emergency room physician, said he treated area residents who were experiencing the effects from vog that blew through a Pahoa shelter as the wind shifted in that direction. Symptoms included thick mucus, heavy cough and burning in the lungs, throat and nose. Some with underlying lung disease even needed to use inhalers, and at least one elderly woman needed an oxygen tank, he said. …
The [Hawaii] state Health Department warned residents this week that commercial masks sold in stores do not protect against ‘extremely dangerous gases released from the volcanic eruption.’ The gases consist of several different chemicals, dust and particles that include sulfur dioxide.”
Past Acid-Base blog posts include:
04/09/2014 Acids, Bases & Salts – Intro
04/13/2014 Acids & Bases – Arrhenius theory and pH
04/16/2014 Acids & Bases – Bronsted-Lowry
04/24/2014 Acids & Bases – Titration
04/30/2014 Acids & Bases – Lewis Theory & Buffers
05/08/2016 The Chemistry of Baking Soda
*This Blog contains several entries that would be helpful to your chemistry classroom. Check out the Topic List to help you to find past Blog entries.
Also, Write To Me about your successes, challenges, or questions in the Chemistry Classroom.
Remember, buying a copy of the lab book Chemistry on a Budget can be very useful to your Chemistry classroom with labs and class article ideas.
Have a great weekend!