There are two versions of each lab, one with a ten-question conclusion and one with directions for a full lab report. This way the teacher has the option! Each lab is two pages to allow for one two-sided handout.
A 5-Star Customer Review of Chemistry on a Budget at amazon.com states:
“[S]traight forward, to the point, using household chemicals… this is the lab book for you.
I teach high school chemistry and this is exactly what I was looking for. Labs included simple household chemicals that could be easily found. Nice format, easy to follow along procedures, and touches on every topic of our chemistry curriculum.”
You can buy this lab book for $23 at amazon.com or lulu.com. It will take 1-2 weeks to get to you -- Order Now. It’s a great resource!
*Some of you have already purchased my lab book – be sure to check out Page 141 !
“What if we could bottle solar energy so it could be used to power our homes and factories even when the sun doesn't shine?
Scientists have spent decades looking for a way do just that, and now researchers in Sweden are reporting significant progress. They've developed a specialized fluid that absorbs a bit of sunlight's energy, holds it for months or even years and then releases it when needed. If this so-called solar thermal fuel can be perfected, it might drive another nail in the coffin of fossil fuels — and help solve our global-warming crisis.
Unlike oil, coal and natural gas, solar thermal fuels are reusable and environmentally friendly. They release energy without spewing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.”
The picture shows the scientist not wearing goggles in his lab setup, not usual in a lab.
“Hydrocarbons, in part, became the world's dominant energy source because they are relatively cheap to extract, can be stored for long periods of time, and can be utilized immediately. These factors make it a great source for energy to power on-demand. As batteries continue to develop in their capacity to store energy and for long periods of time, they have begun to supplant hydrocarbons, i.e. electric vehicles.
As an alternative to batteries, the specialized solar thermal fluid can hold the sun's energy for long periods of time and expel that energy on demand. Unlike batteries, which discharge electricity, the solar thermal fuel emits heat when activated through a catalyst. This means the fluid would be ideal for heating residential and commercial homes.
The fuel is composed of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen molecules. The molecules can be seen in the figure below, with the original fuel source being norbornadiene molecules. When these molecules are hit by sunlight, some of the bonds between atoms are rearranged to form quadricyclane.
This chemical conversion into a different molecular structure called an isomer traps energy within the molecule. The energized version of the molecule is stable, with strong chemical bonds. This is key in that the stable molecule can sit for nearly two decades without losing the stored energy.
To release the energy, the molecule can be passed through a catalyst, which rearranges the chemical bonds back to norbornadiene and with it releases quite a lot of heat. …
The team found that the catalyst process heats up the fuel by 63 degrees Celsius (113 degrees Fahrenheit). This means if the ambient temperature in the room is around 70 degrees Fahrenheit, the fluid would heat up to 183 degrees F. The heated fluid could then be used to heat homes, commercial buildings, etc.
With additional testing and optimization, the team believes they can produce a molecule that can heat up the fuel by over 176 degrees F. The fuel could then be considered for electricity generation.”
“The fluid has been in development for over a year by scientists from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. The exciting liquid is a molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen.
When sunlight makes contact with the liquid the bonds between its atoms are rearranged and it transforms into an energized version of itself called an isomer. The sun's energy is then captured between the isomers' strong chemical bonds.
Incredibly, the energy stays trapped there even when the molecule cools down to the room temperature. To put the trapped energy to use, the liquid is put through a catalyst which returns the molecule to its original form, releasing energy in the form of heat. …
The system works as a loop. It has a concave reflector with a pipe at its center which tracks the sun position. The liquid is pumped through transparent tubes to be heated by the sun.
As it heats it changes from its initial form of the molecule norbornadiene into its heat-trapping isomer, quadricyclane. The energy full liquid is then stored at room temperature.
When an energy demand occurs, the fluid is pushed through a catalyst that converts the molecules back to their original form, warming the liquid by 63 degrees Celsius. This warm liquid can be used for can then have application in everything from domestic heating systems, powering a building's water heater, dishwasher, clothes dryer and much more.
The liquid is then pumped back to the roof to be reused. So far the researchers have put the fluid through this cycle more than 125 times without significant damage to the molecule. The most recent study in the series has been published in Energy & Environmental Science.”
A 17 minute Vimeo video segment interviewing the leader of the research team, Kasper Moth-Poulsen, Professor at the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. The segment is about ¾ down the page:
Notice that this scientist reminds viewers that replication of this method is being performed by other scientists -- it is very important that the method is repeated by other scientists.
Here are past blog topics that may be useful for reference.
01/22/2014 Combustion of a Hydrocarbon
03/02/2014 Heating and Cooling Curves
03/05/2014 Heat and Energy
03/30/2014 Reaction Rates (includes Potential Energy
Diagram video & worksheets)
05/21/2014 Organic Chemistry – Alkanes, Alkenes
05/25/2014 Organic Chemistry – Organic Compounds
05/28/2014 Organic Chemistry – Chemical Reactions
06/16/2017 Source of Energy Choices: An Article
*This Blog contains several entries that would be helpful to your chemistry classroom. Check out the Topic List to help you to find past Blog entries.
Also, Write To Me about your successes, challenges, or questions in the Chemistry Classroom.
Remember, buying a copy of the lab book Chemistry on a Budget can be very useful to your Chemistry classroom with labs and class article ideas.
Have a great weekend!