The book Chemistry on a Budget contains inexpensive chemistry labs that are useful with easy to obtain materials.
There are two versions of each lab, one with a ten-question conclusion and one with directions for a full lab report. This way the teacher has the option! Each lab is two pages to allow for one two-sided handout.
You can buy this lab book for $23 at amazon.com or lulu.com. It will take 1-2 weeks to get to you -- Order Now. It’s a great resource!
*Some of you have already purchased my lab book – be sure to check out Page 141 !
One post that might help some of you right now is dated 01/04/2015 and titled “Midterm Examinations” .
A recent tragic event occurred on Tuesday, 1/3/17:
“A Texas woman was in critical condition Tuesday [1/3/17] following an accidental poisoning at her home that killed four of her children and sickened five other family members, hospital and fire officials said.
Crews who responded to a 5 a.m. call to the home on Monday originally thought it was related to carbon monoxide [CO] poisoning, but authorities later determined that phosphine gas [PH3] was likely released when a family member used water to wash away pesticide pellets he had placed under the mobile home. One child died at the scene and three others died at a hospital. ... [A]luminum phosphide [AlP] is often used as a fumigant to get rid of pests like gophers and mice.
When aluminum phosphide is mixed with any moisture, it produces a toxic phosphine gas, which is what took the lives of the four kids. Officials said a resident of the east Amarillo home was trying to kill mice and placed the pesticide underneath their home, then applied water.”
Here is an overview of the chemical Phosphine (PH3) as well as it’s sources and uses:
“They were already getting an odor and they were trying to suppress the vapors. He didn’t know enough about the chemical,” said Amarillo Fire Department Lieutenant Josh Whitney. ‘The chemical is only sold to people that have a license to apply it, and he got this black market. He applied it yesterday, and then so over the night is whenever all the toxic gasses were leeching to inside the house.’
Aluminum phosphide is so strong it is classified as a ‘restricted use’ pesticide and is only supposed to be sold to licensed professionals. “
In most uses, diluting a substance with water cleans away the substance and reduces its dangerous properties. This was not an appropriate treatment of this chemical and had fatal effects.
“Aluminum Phosphide [AlP] is so strong it is commonly referred to as a ‘restricted use’ pesticide. …when inhaled, it attacks the respiratory system. And if someone is lucky enough to survive inhalation, they will likely experience long term health issues.”
This article provides a 2 minute video provides a brief discussion of aluminum phosphide, a “restricted use” chemical.
“After someone applied the pesticide -- aluminum phosphide -- under the mobile home, a family member tried to wash it away, said Capt. Larry Davis of the Amarillo Fire Department.
But aluminum phosphide mixed with water creates toxic phosphine gas, which can cause excess fluid in the lungs and respiratory failure.“
“Phosphine is used as an insecticide and rodenticide. It is available as aluminum phosphide or other salts in tablets, pellets and powder in bags. These are usually referred to as phosphine generators in which the salts are exposed to moisture in the air, and phosphine gas is then released.”
“CHEMICAL DANGERS [of Aluminum Phosphide, AlP]:
The substance decomposes on contact with water , moist air and acids producing highly flammable and toxic gases (phosphine, see ICSC 0694).”
“Phosphine is a colorless gas with a disagreeable odor of fish or garlic. Boiling point -126°F; freezing point -209°F. Very toxic by inhalation at extremely low concentrations. Prolonged heating may cause containers to rupture violently and rocket. Rate of onset: Immediate & Delayed (Lungs) Persistence: Minutes - hours Odor threshold: 0.9 ppm Source/use/other hazard: Insecticide; used in manufacture of flame retardants and incendiaries.”
I only post about this tragedy to remind teachers and students to read and apply the guidelines in the [Safety Data Sheet or] SDS.
“The Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) (29 CFR 1910.1200(g)), revised in 2012, requires that the chemical manufacturer, distributor, or importer provide Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) (formerly MSDSs or Material Safety Data Sheets) for each hazardous chemical to downstream users to communicate information on these hazards. The information contained in the SDS is largely the same as the MSDS, except now the SDSs are required to be presented in a consistent user-friendly, 16-section format. This brief provides guidance to help workers who handle hazardous chemicals to become familiar with the format and understand the contents of the SDSs.”
“[A] Safety Data Sheet, SDS, is designed to provide both workers and emergency personnel with the proper procedures for handling or working with a particular substance. SDS's include information such as physical data (melting point, boiling point, flash point etc.), toxicity, health effects, first aid, reactivity, storage, disposal, protective equipment, spill/leak procedures, and more. While SDS's are of particular use if a spill or other accident occurs, they are key to preventing workplace exposure and accidents and should always be consulted before working with a material or developing a new process. In fact, this is how employers generally meet their mandatory employee information and training obligation under the HazCom Standard.”
At this site you can view the format of Safety Data Sheets (SDS):
*This Blog contains several entries that would be helpful to your chemistry classroom. Check out the Topic List to help you to find past Blog entries.
Also, Write To Me about your successes, challenges, or questions in the Chemistry Classroom.
Remember, buying a copy of the lab book Chemistry on a Budget can be very useful to your Chemistry classroom with labs and class article ideas.
Have a great weekend!