There are two versions of each lab, one with a ten-question conclusion and one with directions for a full lab report. This way the teacher has the option! Each lab is two pages to allow for one two-sided handout.
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I teach high school chemistry and this is exactly what I was looking for. Labs included simple household chemicals that could be easily found. Nice format, easy to follow along procedures, and touches on every topic of our chemistry curriculum.”
You can buy this lab book for $23 at amazon.com or lulu.com. It will take 1-2 weeks to get to you -- Order Now. It’s a great resource!
*Some of you have already purchased my lab book – be sure to check out Page 141 !
“World-wide demand for electricity is expected to double within the next 20 years; this, combined with commitments to significantly reduce CO2 emissions in the same time-frame are increasing the search for clean, socially acceptable methods of generating power. Ocean waves are a large, relatively untapped renewable energy resource. According to London-based Carbon Trust, wave energy can realistically provide over 2,000 TWh/year of electricity–approximately 10% of global energy needs.
Ocean waves and tidal currents are one of the most important, clean, cheap, rich, and reliable sources of renewable energy on the earth. Ocean energy in Europe has attracted a good deal of attention since 1970’s (about 30 companies and research institutes). The instability in the oil price, environmental issues, and finiteness of resources has made the Unites States to seriously investigate on ocean wave energy companies. It is sought to be a very potential and active area of research in the next decades.
Although still in the early stages of development, ocean energy can and will provide enough power to supply a substantial part of the world energy demand. The wave energy industry is sometimes compared with the wind energy industry some 25 years ago when there was neither a unique design, nor a universal agreement on its future path. Wind industry has converged to a unique design over the past quarter of a century and now is a major player in the energy industry. Having learned from the evolution of wind power, wave energy is expected to come into play in a much shorter time period.”
“The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has completed a recent analysis of the U.S. wave energy resource potential. EPRI estimates the total wave energy resource along the outer continental shelf at 2,640 TWh/yr. That is an enormous potential, considering that just 1 TWh/yr of energy will supply around 93,850 average U.S. homes with power annually. While an abundance of wave energy is available, it cannot be fully harnessed everywhere for a variety of reasons, such as other competing uses of the ocean (i.e. shipping, commercial fishing, naval operations) or environmental concerns in sensitive areas. Therefore, it is important to consider how much resource is recoverable in a given region. EPRI estimates that the total recoverable resource along the U.S. shelf edge is 1,170 TWh/yr, which is almost one third of the 4,000 TWh of electricity used in the United States each year.”
“The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides a number of useful maps and tools regarding wave energy resources, including a wave energy resource atlas, available at https://www.nrel.gov/water/data-tools.html. “
“In 2001, more than 1000 different methods of utilization of wave energy had been patented by many different wave energy companies, most of which never even made it past the first few stages. Only a few of these projects have been shown to work in reality. The following are the three main methods that look most promising:
Oscillating Water Column (OWC)
An oscillating water column is partially lowered into water. It is open below the surface line with a hollow upper part filled with air. The water level within the water column increases and decreases with waves coming in resulting in compression and decompression of air. Wells-turbines are ideal for the purpose of converting this into energy, because the turbines rotate the same way independent of the direction of the airflow. A generator converts this mechanical energy into useful electricity.
Surface-following attenuator (Line Absorber)
The point absorber consists of a series of long unit, floating on the surface of the water following the movements of the wave. It is this movement that is harnessed and converted to electricity in the point absorber.
A Scottish company, Pelamis Wave Power (previously known as Ocean Power Delivery), has installed a successful 2.5 MW wave farm Aguçadoura of the coast of Portugal. This wave power plant was opened in September 2008. Below is a picture of one of the Pelamis Wave Energy Converters that is the foundation of Aguçadoura, maybe the most promising device to harness wave energy so far.
This device looks like a sea snake in the water. It consists of a series of joints that generate power as the waves move them up and down through hydraulic rams and a generator. An underwater cable moves the electricity to the shore.
Buoyancy Unit/Point Absorber
The buoyancy unit is floating on the waves or below the water surface, fixed to the bottom, following the vertical movements of the waves up and down. These waves drive a pump that generates electricity.
The power generation of a typical ocean wave energy unit is about 1 MW, but we expect this output to get better along with the wave energy technology.
After several years with low activity around marine energy technologies, the need for renewable energy has pushed the interest for these technologies forward. Some countries have invested more than others when it comes to developing these methods. Britain and Portugal are currently the leading nations when it comes to ocean wave energy conversion, but several other countries are starting to grasp the potential of harnessing wave energy as well.”
“[In September 19, 2016], the Navy has established a test site in Hawaii, with hopes the technology can someday be used to produce clean, renewable power for offshore fueling stations for the fleet and provide electricity to coastal communities in fuel-starved places around the world. ...
Hawaii would seem a natural site for such technology. As any surfer can tell you, it is blessed with powerful waves. The island state also has the nation's highest electricity costs—largely because of its heavy reliance on oil delivered by sea—and has a legislative mandate to get 100 percent of its energy from renewables by 2045.”
Here is one design called WaveStar from Denmark:
Here is another design from Japan: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xyta74Mt9v4
And here is the Swansea Bay Project from the UK:
“Advantage[s] of Wave Power [include]:
Clean and green
Because it uses only the energy of ocean waves, wave energy does not produce greenhouse gases or other pollutants like fossil fuels do.
Renewable and reliable
Waves are a material that cannot be used up like other conventional forms of energy such as oil, natural gas, and coal, and we won’t run out of waves any time soon. Waves will continue to hit coastlines worldwide, and therefore, they can serve as a reliable source of energy.
With an estimated worldwide electricity-generating potential of 2 terawatts (TW) from waves, there are many opportunities to develop this technology into one of many resources for our renewable energy future.
Efficient energy production
The energy density of waves along shorelines is approximately 30-40 kW/m of waves, and further out into the ocean, most waves can generate 100 kW/meter of electricity. Less than ½ mile2 of ocean has the potential to generate more than 30 MW of power, which is enough energy to power 20,000 British homes.
Can be built offshore
While wave energy devices can be built near shorelines, they can also be built offshore, which reduces shoreline conflicts of use such as recreation and fishing.
Low operation costs
Once they have been built, wave energy devices can be free to operate by themselves, unless the equipment malfunctions or damage occurs.
Minimum visual impact
Wave energy devices can be installed to be mostly or entirely submerged beneath the water. The devices can be installed far enough from shore to allow for minimal visual impact.
No fuel cost
Because wave energy uses no fuel, this dramatically lowers the cost of device operation.
No pollution or death
Unlike oil spills and pollution and death from fossil fuels like coal, there is virtually no pollution from the generation of electricity from waves.
Wave energy devices can be tailored to meet electricity demand, and therefore can be manufactured at different sizes that are appropriate for each location. In contrast, fossil fuels generally require large facilities in order to produce electricity.
Disadvantages of wave power [include:]
Current high cost of investmentBecause wave energy is still in the developmental stage, it is very costly to build wave devices. As the technology improves and the demand for renewable energy technologies increases, the costs of investment and construction of wave energy technology are expected to decrease.
Maintenance and weather effects
Equipment that is exposed to rugged oceanic conditions 24/7 can lead to damage to wave equipment and to corrosion from salty seawater, requiring maintenance. Oceanic storms such as hurricanes are particularly damaging to wave equipment.
Marine life impacts
Marine life may be harmed or displaced, or their habitats negatively impacted by the construction of wave energy devices.
Reduced sea usage
The physical presence of wave energy device “farms” could potentially reduce the size of shipping channels, as well as opportunities for recreation and fishing.
Thus far, only a few pilot wave energy projects have been constructed globally. Further research is necessary to determine the the lifespan of the equipment, the associated costs with running the devices, and the impacts of these machines on both human and marine life.
Constantly running wave energy devices can be much noisier than waves are naturally, and this could potentially be disruptive to both humans and sea life living near these devices.
Slow technology improvements
Wave energy has been developing since the 1700s, and yet it is still a nascent technology that needs to be more fully developed. This slow development is an impediment to investment in this type of renewable energy.
Difficult to transmit wave energy
It is currently very challenging to transport ocean wave-generated electricity long distances to where it will be consumed inland.
For those people living near ocean shorelines, some types of wave energy devices can be unsightly and interfere with ocean views.”
Next week is the beginning of Winter Break, so there will not be a blog post. The next post will be Friday, 1/4/19.
*This Blog contains several entries that would be helpful to your chemistry classroom. Check out the Topic List to help you to find past Blog entries.
Also, Write To Me about your successes, challenges, or questions in the Chemistry Classroom.
Remember, buying a copy of the lab book Chemistry on a Budget can be very useful to your Chemistry classroom with labs and class article ideas.
Have a great holiday!