There are two versions of each lab, one with a ten-question conclusion and one with directions for a full lab report. This way the teacher has the option! Each lab is two pages to allow for one two-sided handout.
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I teach high school chemistry and this is exactly what [I] was looking for. Labs included simple household chemicals that could be easily found. Nice format, easy to follow along procedures, and touches on every topic of our chemistry curriculum.”
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*Some of you have already purchased my lab book – be sure to check out Page 141 !
“The oceans contain about 50 times more CO2 than the atmosphere and 19 times more than the land biosphere. CO2 moves between the atmosphere and the ocean by molecular diffusion when there is a difference between CO2 gas pressure (pCO2 ) between the atmosphere and oceans. For example, when the atmospheric pCO2 is higher than the surface ocean, CO2 diffuses across the air-sea boundary into the sea water.
The oceans are able to hold much more carbon than the atmosphere because most of the CO2 that diffuses into the oceans reacts with the water to form carbonic acid and its dissociation products, bicarbonate and carbonate ions . The conversion of CO2 gas into nongaseous forms such as carbonic acid and bicarbonate and carbonate ions effectively reduces the CO2 gas pressure in the water, thereby allowing more diffusion from the atmosphere. “
“New research has shown that an invisible film on the surface of the world’s oceans may be greatly reducing carbon absorption from the atmosphere, according to The Guardian. The study, by scientists at the universities of Heriot-Watt, Newcastle, and Exeter, will impact future climate change forecasts. …
As the planet’s greatest long-term sink of carbon dioxide, oceans absorb roughly a quarter of all carbon dioxide emissions generated from human activity. Higher levels of sea turbulence lead to a greater exchange of gases between the ocean and atmosphere.
Now, researchers have calculated the impact of ‘biological surfactants’ on this process, which has been difficult to quantify. The study, by researchers with the European Space Agency, the Natural Environment Research Council, and the Leverhulme Trust, provides real-time comparisons of this ‘surfactant effect’ in different parts of the world’s oceans. Their findings showed that surfactants can cut down on the ocean’s carbon absorption by as much as 50 percent.
Such a significant reduction could prove to be a problem – especially since warming temperatures spark a corresponding rise in surfactants.”
“Carbon sinks are natural systems that suck up and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
The main natural carbon sinks are plants, the ocean and soil. Plants grab carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to use in photosynthesis; some of this carbon is transferred to soil as plants die and decompose. The oceans are a major carbon storage system for carbon dioxide. Marine animals also take up the gas for photosynthesis, while some carbon dioxide simply dissolves in the seawater.
‘Combined, the Earth’s land and ocean sinks absorb about half of all carbon dioxide emissions from human activities,’ said Paul Fraser of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization.”
“The world's oceans currently absorb around a quarter of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, making them the largest long-term sink of carbon on Earth.
Atmosphere-ocean gas exchange is controlled by turbulence at the sea surface, the main cause of which is waves generated by wind. Greater turbulence means increased gas exchange and, until now, it was difficult to calculate the effect of biological surfactants on this exchange.
The Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), Leverhulme Trust and European Space Agency funded team developed a novel experimental system that directly compares ‘the surfactant effect’ between different sea waters collected along oceanographic cruises, in real time.
Using this and satellite observations the team then found that surfactants can reduce carbon dioxide exchange by up to 50 percent.”
“Scientists say the surfactants are not necessarily visible like an oil slick or foam and are difficult to identify from satellites monitoring our ocean’s surface.
They say they need to be able to identify organic matter on the surface microlayer of the ocean so they can reliably estimate gas exchange rates such as carbon dioxide and methane.”
“Dr Ryan Pereira, a Lyell research fellow at Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh, said: ‘As surface temperatures rise, so too do surfactants, which is why this is such a critical finding. The warmer the ocean surface gets, the more surfactants we can expect, and an even greater reduction in gas exchange.
What we discovered at 13 sites across the Atlantic Ocean is that biological surfactants suppress the rate of gas exchange caused by the wind. These natural surfactants aren’t necessarily visible like an oil slick, or a foam, and are even difficult to identify from satellites monitoring our ocean’s surface.
We need to be able to measure and identify the organic matter on the surface microlayer of the ocean so that we can reliably estimate rates of gas exchange of climate active gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane.’ “
“Evidence suggests that the past and current ocean uptake of human-derived (anthropogenic) CO2 is primarily a physical response to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations.
Whenever the partial pressure of a gas is increased in the atmosphere over a body of water, the gas will diffuse into that water until the partial pressures across the air-water interface are equilibrated. However, because the global carbon cycle is intimately embedded in the physical climate system there exist several feedback loops between the two systems.
For example, increasing CO2 modifies the climate which in turn impacts ocean circulation and therefore ocean CO2 uptake. Changes in marine ecosystems resulting from rising CO2 and/or changing climate can also result in changes in air-sea CO2 exchange.
These feedbacks can change the role of the oceans in taking up atmospheric CO2 making it very difficult to predict how the ocean carbon cycle will operate in the future.”
Current scientific research can be useful as the basis of Essay or Short-Answer questions in your Final Exam.
Past “End of School Year” blog posts include:
06/08/2014 Final Exams – End of Year Preparation
06/15/2014 End of Year Activity – Lab Clean-Up
06/04/2015 Final Exams II
*This Blog contains several entries that would be helpful to your chemistry classroom. Check out the Topic List to help you to find past Blog entries.
Also, Write To Me about your successes, challenges, or questions in the Chemistry Classroom.
Remember, buying a copy of the lab book Chemistry on a Budget can be very useful to your Chemistry classroom with labs and class article ideas.
Have a great weekend!