06/01/2014 High School Lab Activity –Tie Dyeing
06/08/2014 Final Exams – End of Year Preparation
06/15/2014 End of Year Activity – Lab Clean-Up
04/30/2015 Lab Practical Examination
06/04/2015 Final Exams II
The book Chemistry on a Budget contains inexpensive chemistry labs that are useful with easy to obtain materials.
There are two versions of each lab, one with a ten-question conclusion and one with directions for a full lab report. This way the teacher has the option! Each lab is two pages to allow for one two-sided handout.
You can buy this lab book for $23 at amazon.com or lulu.com. It will take 1-2 weeks to get to you -- Order Now. It’s a great resource!
*Some of you have already purchased my lab book – be sure to check out Page 141 !
“The Good Human, a website dedicated to discussing issues related to environmentalism, points out that more than 200,000 trees each year are lost to the manufacture of disposable diapers for babies in the U.S. alone. In addition, it takes 3.4 billion gallons of fuel oil every year to make diapers. What it comes down to is that disposable diapers use 20 times more raw materials, two times more water and three times more energy to make than cloth diapers. Besides depleting natural resources, manufacturing disposable diapers also utilizes non-renewable energy sources.”
Although producing less waste in landfills, cloth diapers use water and energy for washing.
“After a three-year, 200,000-pound (about $360,000) study, the London-based Environmental Agency concluded that disposable diapers have the same environmental impact as reusable diapers when the effect of laundering cloth diapers is taken into account.”
[C]loth diapers are a much better choice in terms of being environmentally friendly. This is because they do not find up in the landfill like disposable diapers do. … Cloth diapers are made of biodegradable material that will not harm the environment when they have reached the end of their lives. In addition, they are used for a much longer period of time as they are washed and reused many times” .
“But, [c]loth diapers are less convenient. ... With the disposable diaper you can simply tossed the paper in the trash once it has been used. Many parents enjoy this hassle-free method. … [C]loth diapers are also quite inconvenient when traveling on the road during vacations and family trips. This is especially true if there are no washing facilities available to you during your trip.“
“Because diaper materials aren't biodegradable -- with plastic in the lining and a filling made with petrochemical-based polymer (sodium polyacrylate) -- throwaway diapers are toxic to the environment if left untreated.
To cut down on environmental waste, Scott Bolin -- cofounder of Raleigh, N.C.-based startup Tethis -- has developed a green alternative: a biodegradable material made from corn starch, rather than petrochemical polymer. “
“Tethex SAP [superabsorbent polymer] powders are based on a novel patent-pending technology platform with feature, manufacturing, price, and ecological advantages over the existing synthetic SAPs.
They cover a broad range of product space where gel strength and absorptive capacity can be tailored to achieve desired performance requirements. They have demonstrated superior performance in brine, seawater, blood, oil, & other ionic liquids and can be produced with anionic, cationic, or amphoteric backbones as well as various particle sizes or form factors for use in specific applications.
They are manufactured using green materials with green processes using biodegradable, plant-derived inputs. The flexible manufacturing platform can be distributed close to customer demand/plants.”
“Sodium polyacrylate [(C3H3NaO2)n] is a chemical polymer that is widely used in a variety of consumer products for its ability to absorb several hundred times its mass in water. Sodium polyacrylate is made up of multiple chains of acrylate compounds that possess a positive anionic charge, which attracts water-based molecules to combine with it, making sodium polyacrylate a suber-absorbent compound. …
Sodium polyacrylate is commonly used as a sequestering agent, or chelating agent, in many detergents. It has the ability to bind hard-water elements, such as magnesium, calcium, iron and zinc, to make the detergents work more effectively. Chelating agents neutralize the presence of heavy metals that may be found in water, dirt and other substances that can be found in your laundry, making the detergent more effective in cleaning and neutralizing odors in your clothes.
Sodium polyacrylate is primarily used as a thickening agent because of its unique ability to absorb and hold onto water molecules, making it ideal for use in diapers and hair gels. It is also used in industrial processes to dissolve soaps by absorbing water molecules. … In diapers, sodium polyacrylate will absorb the water molecules found in urine, increasing the amount of liquid the diaper can hold while at the same time reducing the risk of diaper rash by promoting a dry environment.
Sodium polyacrylate has been included in the coatings of sensitive electrical wiring to keep moisture away from the wires. Water and moisture conduct electricity, and can interfere with the transmission of electrical signals along wires that transmit elecrical signals, causing damage to the wire and creating a potential fire hazard. When sodium polyacrylate is infused in the protective rubber coating around a wire, it protects the wire from exposure to moisture, ensuring the safe transmission of electrical signals.
Sodium polyacrylate is used extensively in the agricultural industry and is infused in the soil of many potted plants to help them retain moisture, behaving as a type of water reservoir. … Sodium polyacrylate has also been combined with other absorbent polymers and infused into the innermost layers of spacesuits that will be worn by a NASA astronaut to help keep his skin from developing rashes during space flight.”
You can obtain a small amount of sodium polyacrylate out of a child’s diaper that has been cut open, but it is only a small amount. If want a larger amount, here are a few sites you can buy this chemical for the classroom:
“Salt causes water to leak out of the sodium polyacrylate because it disrupts the attraction between water and the polymer chain. When salt is added, it breaks up into negative and positive ions, which are also attracted to the water molecules. In fact, each ion attracts several water molecules to it.”
jiggle gels - American Chemical Societyhttps://www.acs.org/content/dam/acsorg/.../polymers-teachers-guide-jiggle-gels.pdf
A handy demonstration is secretly placing sodium polyacrylate in one of 3 plastic cup (colored, not clear). For the demonstration, pour some water into the cup with the polymer, shuffle the cups around (shell game style) and ask your students to identify with cup has the water. You turn the cup upside down, no water comes out. This is true with the other two cups. This could be an introductory demonstration for an Organic Chemistry unit.
Past blog posts concerning Organic Chemistry or related topics include:
05/21/2014 Organic Chemistry –
Alkanes, Alkenes & Alkynes
05/25/2014 Organic Chemistry – Organic Compounds
05/28/2014 Organic Chemistry – Chemical Reactions
05/14/2015 Fractional Distillation
01/22/2016 Methane Leak in California
02/06/2016 Carbon Dioxide Conversion to Methanol
10/21/2016 Indigo Dye
12/02/2016 The Space Poop Challenge
*This Blog contains several entries that would be helpful to your chemistry classroom. Check out the Topic List to help you to find past Blog entries.
Also, Write To Me about your successes, challenges, or questions in the Chemistry Classroom.
Remember, buying a copy of the lab book Chemistry on a Budget can be very useful to your Chemistry classroom with labs and class article ideas.
Have a great weekend!